Mental health is defined as an emotional, psychological and social well-being of a person(ASPA, 2013). In 1999, the general report on mental health defines is as a successful performance of mental function, resulting in the performance of activities, integrating with other people, and the adapt to changes (Nopf, Park, & Mulye, n.d.). WHO gave its own definition of mental health as a “state of well-being in which every individual realizes their own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to contribute to the community”(WHO, 2014). The WHO report differentiates mental health and mental illness (WHO, 2004). It states that mental illness is referred to as a mental disorder diagnosed to determine the alterations in thinking, mood, or behaviour that are related to distress and/or impaired functioning (Laura Mateescu, Florina Rad, Raluca Grozavescu, & Petrovai, 2009).
A good mental health is gotten from the benefits of the society. However, most adolescents in EU Countries develop emotional and behavioural problems. One out of 8 children are clinically diagnosed with mental health disorder. According to Children and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH), there is a high rate of ill-mental health among children and youths (Laura Mateescu et al., 2009). Most mental health problems are diagnosed in adulthood which often begins during adolescence from the age of 14. Their ability to cope with the mental health problems includes substance abuse and violence which affects their daily life in areas of building social relationships, and participation in schools and work fields(Kessler et al., 2005).
There is an increased rate of attention on depression among adolescents, which has resulted to a high interest in the aetiology, comorbidities and consequences of early-onset depression. For instance, there are evidence supporting the notion that adolescents who show signs of onset depression or have the tendency to develop depression are at high risk of several adverse outcomes (Fergusson & Woodward, 2002), such as low academic achievement, different mental health complications which includes anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and suicidal behaviors. The relationship between early depression and later outcomes result in reflecting the effects of early-onset depression in developing children and its continuation on depressed mood as it progresses across time (Weissman et al., 1999).
In Romania, over the past 19 years, after the revolution that occurred in December 1989, many things in Romania changed drastically compared with that moment. Many of these changes remain in progress, while there are still some aspects that have unfortunately remained unimproved. A significant moment in terms of child and adolescent mental health was joining the EU, in 2007. In 2005, “the action plan for implementing the mental health strategy by the Ministry of Health proposed a change of the mental health services in Romania”. The results of the mental health situation of children and adolescents in Romania showed in relation to that of the adult mental health, which calls for the proposal of significant changes. Although the objective of the study was to achieve the promotion of mental health human rights, prevention of mental health disorder, collaboration with the civil society, and implementing a mental health strategy, there are gaps which are yet to be filled up (Laura Mateescu et al., 2009).
Studies have shown that socioeconomic status as a risk factor for mental health among adolescents. In the European region, mental health contributes to inequality in the health of an individual. Mental health is relatively associated with poor education, material disadvantage and unemployment (Fryers, Melzer, Jenkins, & Brugha, 2005). Suicide is more common in areas of low socio-economic status, and social disparities. The vulnerability of disadvantaged persons in every community to mental health problems has been explained by the factors of experiencing insecurity, and lack of hope, lack of social support or social isolation, poor housing, and lack of educational support (BUKA, 2006).
the crisis of the recent economic system is increasing the rate of social exclusion among vulnerable groups such as low-income population within the European regions. The pressure influences the parental mental health or marital interaction, and parenting skills, which has a great impact on the mental health state of children and adolescents (Neppl, Senia, & Donnellan, 2016). For example, out of 1,073,171 (53.3%) of the Romanian adolescents who live in the rural area, about 6.3% of the population do not attend or have access to education between the age of 14-18 years. Out of the overall population, 96% (females), and 91.6% (males) have access to education in the urban areas(Abraham, D. (coord.); Abraham, A.; Dalu, A.M.; Fierbinteanu, C.; Marcovici, O.; Mitulescu, S.; Plaesu, A.; Sufaru & Institutions:, 2013).
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