Nigeria, an oil-rich West Africa country with 190million inhabitants, gained its political independence from the British in October 1st, 1960. As a heterogeneous ethnic country (composed of 250 ethnic groups), with a historical background on the traditional administrative, military, and democratic governance, has established traditional structures of politics and administration
(Agba & Chukwurah, 2014)
Nigeria is categorized in thirty-six states and one federal capital territory, which are states of which existed only three at independence, reflecting the country’s tumultuous history and the difficulties of managing such a heterogeneous national entity at all governmental levels
(Administrative structure of Nigeria, 2012-2015).
Bureaucracy as a means of Governance (Theory of Bureaucracy by Max Weber):
Bureaucracy as a state is assumed to propose development and good governance by providing fair actions for social provision in the third world
Max Weber a German sociologist sought to understand the social, political and economic institutions of the present through contrasting them with established organizations from the past
(Chand, Smriti, 2010). He identified in bureaucracies a rational-legal authority in which legitimacy is seen as a categorized form of legal order. Example of his acknowledgements; exercised power assures the continued dominance over the ruled administrators (Weber, 2001). Max Weber, defined bureaucracy as a system of government or institutions that has many complicated rules and ways of doing things (Merriam, 1828).
Application of Bureaucracy in Nigeria:
The concept of Bureaucracy:
In Nigeria, the other term used for bureaucracy is “Civil Service” or “Public Service”. It is a part and parcel of the executive charged with the responsibility of developing and implementing policies and programs of the government. That is to say, while it is the duty of the political parties to determine and direct the focus of policies, the bureaucracy Is the administrative machinery through which the objectives are determined
(Adegoroye, G., 2015).
Weberian and Marxian believed the state was the outcome of the rise of property system, classes and class antagonisms. With the collection of historical materials, Marxian concluded that the state was an instrument of exploitation
(Marxian & Weberian). The realization of rational goals and objectives are maximized through the bureaucratic qualities of formalism and impersonality in the application of rules and regulations in the operation and management of organizations (Adegoroye, G., 2015).
Bureaucracy and Efficiency in Nigeria Public Enterprise (Case study):
The purpose of bureaucracy in this study is to successfully implement the actions of an institution of any size (seldom associate with several large entities; examples; government, corporations and NGOs). To achieve its purpose and goals, the bureaucracy is tasked to determine how to achieve its aim with the greatest possible efficiency and at the least cost of any resources. Therefore, the study aimed at finding out to what extent in which bureaucratic efficiency have undermined the smooth effective and efficient operation of Nigeria Public Administration
(BUREAUCRACY AND EFFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC ENTERPRISE; Power holidings, 2016).
Another case study: Bureaucracy and Efficiency in Nigeria Public Enterprise, Power Holding.
The aim of the study Is to ascertain the compact of bureaucracy towards achieving organizational systems. The invention of western bureaucracy in the past centuries helped solve the problem for leaders of governing human systems that grew bigger and more intense in each year
(BUREAUCRACY AND EFFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC ENTERPRISE; Power holidings, 2016). The two case studies were based on the following characteristics:
1. Bureaucrats are obliged to be personally free and subjective to authority with the respect to the impersonal duties of their offices.
2. Bureaucrats are categorized in an organized defined hierarchy of offices.
3. They accept and maintain their appointments
(BUREAUCRACY AND EFFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC ENTERPRISE; Power holidings, 2016).
Advantages of Bureaucracy in Nigeria Public Services:
Structural, administrative attitudes and behaviours and political and economic are thematic formats of civil services. According to Nnoli (1980), Adebay (2001), and Yusufu (1992), theoretically, positions are supposed to be filled on the basis of merit. However, political, family, ethnic and religious factors are significant considerations in achieving bureaucratic appointments. Hence, the personnel regulations, qualifications, organizational structure and work environment play an important purpose in diminishing the administrative capacity in the public bureaucracy
(Adebayo, A; Nnoli(1980), & Yusufu(1992), 2001).
Failure of Bureaucracy in Nigeria:
From the above case studies, the totality of government offices and bureaus constitute the permanent government of a state. That is to say, those persons and functions that continue irrespective of changes in political leadership. In Nigeria, bureaucracy is known as the 4th branch of government, despite the fact it was technically under the control of the executive branch, it sometimes seemed to function as if it had its own will, power and legal authority
If bureaucracy has the advantages mentioned above accompanied by the following:
1. Clearly stated expectations
2. Promotes equality in treatment
3. Policies are strict
4. Division of labour ETC.
Question: Why bureaucracy not suitable for the governance of political parties in Nigeria?
Bureaucracy and Problems of Inefficiency in Nigeria’s Civil Service, Case Study in Enugu State Nigeria:
Although bureaucracy implies an institution categorized by rules, process, impersonal relations, elaborate and fairly rigid hierarchy of authority, responsibility and relation with the aim of control and coordination within the large demand of organization among the bureaucracy principles; in developing nations, such as Nigeria, bureaucracy has been linked if insignificant red-tape and inefficiency. Administration helps in the control of achieved public goals, and the achievement of these goals rely on proper supervision which enhances administrative efficiency that involves competing for successful large and complicated task that no individual could accomplish alone. Therefore, the bureaucracy has created several doubts among the population whether it is actually suitable for institutions like the civil service
(Chudi-Oji, 2013). The confronting problem in Nigeria is the inability of the service to perform efficiently. Moreover, the Nigerian’s public administration environment show signs of inefficiency and poverty, this has interfered with the development (Chudi-Oji, 2013).
This inefficiency leads to lack of vacancies for circumstantial issues. Bureaucracy has no provides no room for the emergency crisis. In other words, there are lack of equipped resources among the bureaucratic companies and institutions to tackle unexpected problems such as market shift and natural disasters. Due to the fact that there’s a decrease in the economy in Nigeria within the past two years, the biggest problem is the amount of time it takes to get any form of goals accomplished
Bureaucracy leads to situations where workers are estranged or disassociated from the from the society. Division of labour has enhanced the performance of complex bureaucracies. Hence leading to trained incapacity
(Chudi-Oji, 2013). According to Schaefer (2002-06) believed that adherence to rules is quite in order but had an argument that it overshadows the large goals of an institution which becomes dysfunctional (Schaefer, 2010). As it is an inconsistency with democratic governance, Onah (2005), has described bureaucracy as an antithesis of democracy (Onah, 2005). Obi and Chukwuemeka (2006:112) made an observation on the inefficiency of civil service. They are discredited to the democratic government in Nigeria; caused by the strict adherence to the bureaucratic rules by the civil service thus, making poor implementation of policy and Methuselah age; all because of due procedure, while the populace which consumes the outputs in jeopardous state (Obi, E.A; and Chukwuemeka, J.N, 2006).
Evidence has shown that the performance of the public service in virtually all categories of government and in extra-ministerial departments in Nigeria remained very abysmal, hence the present state of underdevelopment
It is recommended that if the civil service is to Abbey by the results of good governance in Nigeria, far-reaching are significantly necessary. Promotion and recruitment of civil servants should be comprised of the merit system. This is due to enrollment of federal character principle of recruitment and other spoils system techniques with sacrificed efficiency and effectiveness. Rules and regulations should be flexible and pragmatic since they are the sine qua non-for systematic and orderly government. To assure this system, it is relevant that they are designed to serve colonial policies and revised interest to meet the 21st-century demands
(BUREAUCRACY AND EFFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC ENTERPRISE; Power holdings, 2016).
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