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Bureaucracy Has A Contradictory position In The Administrative System of Nigeria; (Cons Of Establishing A Bureaucratic System In Nigeria):

Nigeria, an oil-rich West Africa country with 190million inhabitants, gained its political independence from the British in October 1st, 1960. As a heterogeneous ethnic country (composed of 250 ethnic groups), with a historical background on the traditional administrative, military, and democratic governance, has established traditional structures of politics and administration (Agba & Chukwurah, 2014)
Nigeria is categorized in thirty-six states and one federal capital territory, which are states of which existed only three at independence, reflecting the country’s tumultuous history and the difficulties of managing such a heterogeneous national entity at all governmental levels (Administrative structure of Nigeria, 2012-2015).

Bureaucracy as a means of Governance (Theory of Bureaucracy by Max Weber):
Bureaucracy as a state is assumed to propose development and good governance by providing fair actions for social provision in the third world (Weber, 2001)
Max Weber a German sociologist sought to understand the social, political and economic institutions of the present through contrasting them with established organizations from the past (Chand, Smriti, 2010).  He identified in bureaucracies a rational-legal authority in which legitimacy is seen as a categorized form of legal order. Example of his acknowledgements; exercised power assures the continued dominance over the ruled administrators  (Weber, 2001). Max Weber, defined bureaucracy as a system of government or institutions that has many complicated rules and ways of doing things (Merriam, 1828).

Application of Bureaucracy in Nigeria:
The concept of Bureaucracy:
In Nigeria, the other term used for bureaucracy is Civil Service” or “Public Service”. It is a part and parcel of the executive charged with the responsibility of developing and implementing policies and programs of the government. That is to say, while it is the duty of the political parties to determine and direct the focus of policies, the bureaucracy Is the administrative machinery through which the objectives are determined (Adegoroye, G., 2015).
Weberian and Marxian believed the state was the outcome of the rise of property system, classes and class antagonisms. With the collection of historical materials, Marxian concluded that the state was an instrument of exploitation (Marxian & Weberian). The realization of rational goals and objectives are maximized through the bureaucratic qualities of formalism and impersonality in the application of rules and regulations in the operation and management of organizations (Adegoroye, G., 2015).

Bureaucracy and Efficiency in Nigeria Public Enterprise (Case study):
The purpose of bureaucracy in this study is to successfully implement the actions of an institution of any size (seldom associate with several large entities; examples; government, corporations and NGOs). To achieve its purpose and goals, the bureaucracy is tasked to determine how to achieve its aim with the greatest possible efficiency and at the least cost of any resources. Therefore, the study aimed at finding out to what extent in which bureaucratic efficiency have undermined the smooth effective and efficient operation of Nigeria Public Administration (BUREAUCRACY AND EFFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC ENTERPRISE; Power holidings, 2016).

Another case study: Bureaucracy and Efficiency in Nigeria Public Enterprise, Power Holding.

The aim of the study Is to ascertain the compact of bureaucracy towards achieving organizational systems. The invention of western bureaucracy in the past centuries helped solve the problem for leaders of governing human systems that grew bigger and more intense in each year (BUREAUCRACY AND EFFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC ENTERPRISE; Power holidings, 2016). The two case studies were based on the following characteristics:
1.       Bureaucrats are obliged to be personally free and subjective to authority with the respect to the impersonal duties of their offices.
2.       Bureaucrats are categorized in an organized defined hierarchy of offices.
3.       They accept and maintain their appointments (BUREAUCRACY AND EFFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC ENTERPRISE; Power holidings, 2016).

Advantages of Bureaucracy in Nigeria Public Services:
Structural, administrative attitudes and behaviours and political and economic are thematic formats of civil services. According to Nnoli (1980), Adebay (2001), and Yusufu (1992), theoretically, positions are supposed to be filled on the basis of merit. However, political, family, ethnic and religious factors are significant considerations in achieving bureaucratic appointments. Hence, the personnel regulations, qualifications, organizational structure and work environment play an important purpose in diminishing the administrative capacity in the public bureaucracy (Adebayo, A; Nnoli(1980), & Yusufu(1992), 2001).

Failure of Bureaucracy in Nigeria:
From the above case studies, the totality of government offices and bureaus constitute the permanent government of a state. That is to say, those persons and functions that continue irrespective of changes in political leadership. In Nigeria, bureaucracy is known as the 4th branch of government, despite the fact it was technically under the control of the executive branch, it sometimes seemed to function as if it had its own will, power and legal authority (Thomson, 2008).
If bureaucracy has the advantages mentioned above accompanied by the following:
1.       Clearly stated expectations
2.       Promotes equality in treatment
3.       Policies are strict
4.       Division of labour ETC. (Navajocode, 2015).

Question: Why bureaucracy not suitable for the governance of political parties in Nigeria?
Bureaucracy and Problems of Inefficiency in Nigeria’s Civil Service, Case Study in Enugu State Nigeria:
Although bureaucracy implies an institution categorized by rules, process, impersonal relations, elaborate and fairly rigid hierarchy of authority, responsibility and relation with the aim of control and coordination within the large demand of organization among the bureaucracy principles; in developing nations, such as Nigeria, bureaucracy has been linked if insignificant red-tape and inefficiency. Administration helps in the control of achieved public goals, and the achievement of these goals rely on proper supervision which enhances administrative efficiency that involves competing for successful large and complicated task that no individual could accomplish alone. Therefore, the bureaucracy has created several doubts among the population whether it is actually suitable for institutions like the civil service (Chudi-Oji, 2013). The confronting problem in Nigeria is the inability of the service to perform efficiently. Moreover, the Nigerian’s public administration environment show signs of inefficiency and poverty, this has interfered with the development (Chudi-Oji, 2013).
This inefficiency leads to lack of vacancies for circumstantial issues. Bureaucracy has no provides no room for the emergency crisis. In other words, there are lack of equipped resources among the bureaucratic companies and institutions to tackle unexpected problems such as market shift and natural disasters. Due to the fact that there’s a decrease in the economy in Nigeria within the past two years, the biggest problem is the amount of time it takes to get any form of goals accomplished (Navajocode, 2015).
Bureaucracy leads to situations where workers are estranged or disassociated from the from the society. Division of labour has enhanced the performance of complex bureaucracies. Hence leading to trained incapacity (Chudi-Oji, 2013). According to Schaefer (2002-06) believed that adherence to rules is quite in order but had an argument that it overshadows the large goals of an institution which becomes dysfunctional (Schaefer, 2010). As it is an inconsistency with democratic governance, Onah (2005), has described bureaucracy as an antithesis of democracy (Onah, 2005).  Obi and Chukwuemeka (2006:112) made an observation on the inefficiency of civil service. They are discredited to the democratic government in Nigeria; caused by the strict adherence to the bureaucratic rules by the civil service thus, making poor implementation of policy and Methuselah age; all because of due procedure, while the populace which consumes the outputs in jeopardous state (Obi, E.A; and Chukwuemeka, J.N, 2006).

Conclusion:
Evidence has shown that the performance of the public service in virtually all categories of government and in extra-ministerial departments in Nigeria remained very abysmal, hence the present state of underdevelopment (Thomson, 2008).
It is recommended that if the civil service is to Abbey by the results of good governance in Nigeria, far-reaching are significantly necessary. Promotion and recruitment of civil servants should be comprised of the merit system. This is due to enrollment of federal character principle of recruitment and other spoils system techniques with sacrificed efficiency and effectiveness. Rules and regulations should be flexible and pragmatic since they are the sine qua non-for systematic and orderly government. To assure this system, it is relevant that they are designed to serve colonial policies and revised interest to meet the 21st-century demands (BUREAUCRACY AND EFFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC ENTERPRISE; Power holdings, 2016).





REFERENCES:


1.       Adebayo, A; Nnoli(1980), & Yusufu(1992). (2001). Principles and Practice of Public Administration. Ibadan, Nigeria . Retrieved from http://www.enemsmicrosystresearchspot.com/assignments/the-concept-of-bureaucracy-and-non-bureaucracy-and-its-application-in-the-nigeria-civil-service/?fdx_switcher=true
2.       Adegoroye, G. (2015, December 23). THE CONCEPT OF BUREAUCRACY AND NON BUREAUCRACY AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE NIGERIA CIVIL SERVICE. BUREAUCRACY AND NON BUREAUCRACY AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE NIGERIA BUREAUCRACY AND NON BUREAUCRACY AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE NIGERIA. Lagos , Nigeria . Retrieved from http://www.enemsmicrosystresearchspot.com/assignments/the-concept-of-bureaucracy-and-non-bureaucracy-and-its-application-in-the-nigeria-civil-service/?fdx_switcher=true
3.       Administrative structure of Nigeria. (2012-2015). Lagos State, Nigeria. Retrieved from http://www.best-country.com/africa/nigeria/administration
4.       Agba, M. S., & Chukwurah, D. C. (2014, January 1). Politics and Administrative Responsibility in Nigeria: An Assessment of Legislative. Journal of Good Governance and Sustainable Development in Africa, 2. Retrieved from Website: http://www.rcmss.com ISSN: 2346-724X (Print) ISSN: 2354-158X (Online
5.       BUREAUCRACY AND EFFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC ENTERPRISE; Power holidings. (2016). project in Nigeria, 97. Retrieved from http://www.iproject.com.ng/public-administration/final-year-project-topics/bureaucracy-and-efficiency-in-nigerian-public-enterprise-a-case-study-of-power-holding/project-topics
6.       Chand, Smriti. (2010). Weber’s Bureaucracy: Definition, Features, Benefits, Disadvantages and Problems. Retrieved from http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/management/webers-bureaucracy-definition-features-benefits-disadvantages-and-problems/27893/
7.       Chudi-Oji, C. (2013, June 12). Bureaucracy And Problems Of Inefficiency In Nigeria’s Civil Service: A Case Study Of Enugu State Civil Service. Doublegist. Retrieved from http://www.doublegist.com/bureaucracy-problems-inefficiency-nigerias-civil-service/
8.       Marxian, & Weberian. (n.d.). Weberian Theory of State – Explained! Political Science Note. Retrieved from http://www.politicalsciencenotes.com/theories-of-state/weberian-theory-of-state-explained/767
9.       Merriam, W. (1828). bureaucracy. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bureaucracy
10.    Navajocode. (2015, June 15). Advantages and disadvantages of bureaucracy. Retrieved from http://navajocodetalkers.org/8-serious-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-bureaucracy/
11.    Obi, E.A; and Chukwuemeka, J.N. (2006). Development Administration theory and Application . Onitsha .
12.    Onah, R. (2005). Public Administration.
13.    Schaefer. (2010, September 19). The Dilemma of the Bureaucratic Cog. Schaefer's blog. Retrieved from http://www.schaefersblog.com/the-dilemma-of-the-bureaucratic-cog/
14.    Thomson, G. (2008). Bureaucratization of Government. International Encyclopledia of Social Science. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences-and-law/political-science-and-government/political-science-terms-and-concepts-83
15.    Weber, M. (2001). Max Weber's Theory of Bureaucracy. Retrieved from http://fspac.ubbcluj.ro/moodle/pluginfile.php/19428/mod_resource/content/0/1.Max%20Weber%20and%20the%20theory%20of%20bureaucracy.pdf




Mental Health In Adolescence



 Mental health is defined as an emotional, psychological and social well-being of a person(ASPA, 2013). In 1999, the general report on mental health defines is as a successful performance of mental function, resulting in the performance of activities, integrating with other people, and the adapt to changes (Nopf, Park, & Mulye, n.d.). WHO gave its own definition of mental health as a “state of well-being in which every individual realizes their own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to contribute to the community”(WHO, 2014). The WHO report differentiates mental health and mental illness (WHO, 2004). It states that mental illness is referred to as a mental disorder diagnosed to determine the alterations in thinking, mood, or behaviour that are related to distress and/or impaired functioning (Laura Mateescu, Florina Rad, Raluca Grozavescu, & Petrovai, 2009).

A good mental health is gotten from the benefits of the society. However, most adolescents in EU Countries develop emotional and behavioural problems. One out of 8 children are clinically diagnosed with mental health disorder. According to Children and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH), there is a high rate of ill-mental health among children and youths (Laura Mateescu et al., 2009). Most mental health problems are diagnosed in adulthood which often begins during adolescence from the age of 14. Their ability to cope with the mental health problems includes substance abuse and violence which affects their daily life in areas of building social relationships, and participation in schools and work fields(Kessler et al., 2005).

There is an increased rate of attention on depression among adolescents, which has resulted to a high interest in the aetiology, comorbidities and consequences of early-onset depression. For instance, there are evidence supporting the notion that adolescents who show signs of onset depression or have the tendency to develop depression are at high risk of several adverse outcomes (Fergusson & Woodward, 2002), such as low academic achievement, different mental health complications which includes anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and suicidal behaviors. The relationship between early depression and later outcomes result in reflecting the effects of early-onset depression in developing children and its continuation on depressed mood as it progresses across time (Weissman et al., 1999).
In Romania, over the past 19 years, after the revolution that occurred in December 1989, many things in Romania changed drastically compared with that moment. Many of these changes remain in progress, while there are still some aspects that have unfortunately remained unimproved. A significant moment in terms of child and adolescent mental health was joining the EU, in 2007. In 2005, “the action plan for implementing the mental health strategy by the Ministry of Health proposed a change of the mental health services in Romania”. The results of the mental health situation of children and adolescents in Romania showed in relation to that of the adult mental health, which calls for the proposal of significant changes. Although the objective of the study was to achieve the promotion of mental health human rights, prevention of mental health disorder, collaboration with the civil society, and implementing a mental health strategy, there are gaps which are yet to be filled up (Laura Mateescu et al., 2009)

Studies have shown that socioeconomic status as a risk factor for mental health among adolescents. In the European region, mental health contributes to inequality in the health of an individual. Mental health is relatively associated with poor education, material disadvantage and unemployment (Fryers, Melzer, Jenkins, & Brugha, 2005).  Suicide is more common in areas of low socio-economic status, and social disparities. The vulnerability of disadvantaged persons in every community to mental health problems has been explained by the factors of experiencing insecurity, and lack of hope, lack of social support or social isolation, poor housing, and lack of educational support (BUKA, 2006).
the crisis of the recent economic system is increasing the rate of social exclusion among vulnerable groups such as low-income population within the European regions. The pressure influences the parental mental health or marital interaction, and parenting skills, which has a great impact on the mental health state of children and adolescents (Neppl, Senia, & Donnellan, 2016). For example, out of 1,073,171 (53.3%) of the Romanian adolescents who live in the rural area, about 6.3% of the population do not attend or have access to education between the age of 14-18 years. Out of the overall population, 96% (females), and 91.6% (males) have access to education in the urban areas(Abraham, D. (coord.); Abraham, A.; Dalu, A.M.; Fierbinteanu, C.; Marcovici, O.; Mitulescu, S.; Plaesu, A.; Sufaru & Institutions:, 2013).

REFERENCES:



1.       Abraham, D. (coord.); Abraham, A.; Dalu, A.M.; Fierbinteanu, C.; Marcovici, O.; Mitulescu, S.; Plaesu, A.; Sufaru, I., & Institutions: (2013). Final report: State of adolescents in Romania. UNICEF, 93. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/romania/UNICEF_Study_State_of_adolescents_in_Romania.pdf
2.       ASPA. (2013). What Is Mental Health? Retrieved from https://www.mentalhealth.gov/basics/what-is-mental-health/index.html
3.       BUKA, D. H. R. A. S. L. (2006). The association between suicide and the socio-economic characteristics of geographical areas : a systematic review. Journal of Psychological Medicine, 36, 145–147. https://doi.org/10.1017/S003329170500588X
4.       Fergusson, D. M., & Woodward, L. J. (2002). Mental Health, Educational, and Social Role Outcomes of Adolescents With Depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(3), 225. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.59.3.225
5.       Fryers, T., Melzer, D., Jenkins, R., & Brugha, T. (2005). The distribution of the common mental disorders: social inequalities in Europe. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health : CP & EMH, 1, 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1745-0179-1-14
6.       Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime Prevalence and Age-of-Onset Distributions of DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 62, 593–602. Retrieved from http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/faculty/detels/PH150/Kessler_DSMIV_AGP2009.pdf
7.       Laura Mateescu, I. E., Florina Rad, Raluca Grozavescu, D., & Petrovai, A. B. and I. D. (2009). Child and adolesCent Mental health in europe: infrastruCtures, poliCy and prograMMes. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_determinants/life_style/mental/docs/camhee_infrastructures.pdf
8.       Neppl, T. K., Senia, J. M., & Donnellan, M. B. (2016). Effects of economic hardship: Testing the family stress model over time. Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43), 30(1), 12–21. https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000168
9.       Nopf, D. K., Park, M. J., & Mulye, T. P. (n.d.). The Mental Health of Adolescents: A National Profile, 2008. Retrieved from http://nahic.ucsf.edu/downloads/MentalHealthBrief.pdf
10.   Weissman, M. M., Wolk, S., Wickramaratne, P., Goldstein, R. B., Adams, P., Greenwald, S., … Steinberg, D. (1999). Children With Prepubertal-Onset Major Depressive Disorder and Anxiety Grown Up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(9), 794. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.56.9.794
11.   WHO. (2004). Promoting Mental Health CONCEPTS EMERGING EVIDENCE A Report of the. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/en/promoting_mhh.pdf
12.   WHO. (2014). WHO | Mental health: a state of well-being. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en/

Globalization And Inequalities

The health of the people has been anticipated by international goals which indicate the benefit of life expectancy over the past decades. However, the inequalities in health among the wealthy and the poor continues, while the prospects for the health in future builds upon the new progression of globalization. In the past, the global development was often seen as more or less economic process but today, it is perceived as a broad paradox designed by a majority of factors and events which reshapes the growth of the society (Huynen, Martens, & Hilderink, 2005).

As the world evolves around us with a high rate of complexity and interconnectivity, the health of the population is recognized as an interspersed event of its ecological, social-cultural, economic and institutional determinants. Thus, it can be regarded as a significant indicator which integrates the sustainability of the natural and socio-economic environment. In the recent years, we have observed the expansion of the economic activities which may have a large scale and permanent outcome on the environment affecting the health of the population.  There is evidence on the increasing rate of globalization (that is, the deregulated trade, capital mobility, employment, and low labor standards), and the global advancement in industrialism, cultures, electronic communication, and physical mobility on humans which influences the wellbeing, and health of the population (Martens, McMichael, & Patz, 2000).

Globalization influences health in multiple ways. Its effects intervene with the growth, and distribution of income, economic stability, availability of health, and other social resources, and proliferation. Also, the health status is affected by the previous circumstances of revolutionizing of each country, i.e. the size and international specialization of the economy, the availability and dissemination of assets, the human capital, and framework, and the quality of the domestic policies (Cornia, 2001).

Globalization can incline the informalization of the economy through outsourcing, and out-letting by an enormous partnership. For instance, NIKE depends on an overflow chain of over 10,000 micro subcontractors which supplies much more difficult collection because of the employment in small business, in particular, in unofficial zones, where there is an increased rate of developing countries for over 20 years. In the early 1990s, 58% of the magnitude of such employment attained in the nine biggest Latin American countries, and an estimate of the same values for Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, and Asia were 74%, 43% and 62%. Thereby, the eradication of import assessment and export of taxes decrease the revenue. Also, in the world of mobile capital, and immobile labour, developing countries that intend to attract foreign capital may involve in downward bidding which may result to high-income tax, acknowledgement of tax holidays, and allocate different industrial subsidies (Andrea, 2016).


If and when managed efficiently, globalization can improve the benefits of health. The global market forces effective work in domestic markets that are competitive, and non-exclusive, the institutions for regulations are strong, there will be moderation of asset intensity, the access to public health services will be unlimited, the social safety will be secured, and the laws guiding access to the global market will be non-discriminative (Kabir, Mohammad, Haque, & Hasan, n.d.)



REFERENCES
 Andrea, G. (2016). The mortality crisis in transition economies, 2054–9571. https://doi.org/10.15185/izawol.298

           Cornia, G. A. (2001). Globalization and health: results and options. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 79, 834–841. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0042-96862001000900008

          Huynen, M. M. T. E., Martens, P., & Hilderink, H. B. M. (2005). The health impacts of globalization: a conceptual framework. Globalization and Health, 1, 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-8603-1-14

       Kabir, F., Mohammad, R., Haque, M., & Hasan, F. (n.d.). GLOBALIZATION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT – REALITIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. CDRB Publication Asian Affairs, 30(1), 32–49. Retrieved from http://www.cdrb.org/journal/2008/1/3.pdf

5   Martens, P., McMichael, A. J., & Patz, J. A. (2000). Editorial: Globalisation, environmental change and health. Global Change and Human Health, 1(1), 4–8. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011572212445