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Social Determinants of Mental Health Among Adolescents

In recent years, depression in childhood has increased attention for awareness among adolescence.13 Although it was believed that depression did not occur in children before the 1970s, recent studies 1,47  have proven that about 2%-8% of young adults experience their first symptoms at the age of 16.
For example, Hankin et al5 discovered that approximately, 6% of young adults in  the Dunedin study cohort met DSM-III8 diagnostic criteria for depression on at least one occasion by age 15. A similar rate was reported by Fergusson et al,4 who found that almost7% of 15-year-olds met DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for depression.

The increase in the presence of depression among adolescences has led to a growing interest in the etiology, comorbities, and consequences of early-onset depression. For example; there has been evidence suggesting that young people showing signs of early depression or depressive symptoms are at high risk for several adverse outcomes, including further depressive episode,911 impaired social functioning,9,1216 low academic achievement,9,10,12,15,17,18 and a range of other mental health problems, such as anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and suicidal behaviors.12,15,1921 These linkages between early depression and later outcomes are thought to reflect the effects of early-onset depression on normal development and the continuities of depressed mood across time.9



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