In recent years, depression in childhood has increased attention for awareness among adolescence.1- 3 Although it was believed that depression did not occur in children before the 1970s, recent studies 1,4- 7 have proven that about 2%-8% of young adults experience their first symptoms at the age of 16.
For example, Hankin et al5 discovered that approximately, 6% of young adults in the Dunedin study cohort met DSM-III8 diagnostic criteria for depression on at least one occasion by age 15. A similar rate was reported by Fergusson et al,4 who found that almost7% of 15-year-olds met DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for depression.
The increase in the presence of depression among adolescences has led to a growing interest in the etiology, comorbities, and consequences of early-onset depression. For example; there has been evidence suggesting that young people showing signs of early depression or depressive symptoms are at high risk for several adverse outcomes, including further depressive episode,9- 11 impaired social functioning,9,12- 16 low academic achievement,9,10,12,15,17,18 and a range of other mental health problems, such as anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and suicidal behaviors.12,15,19- 21 These linkages between early depression and later outcomes are thought to reflect the effects of early-onset depression on normal development and the continuities of depressed mood across time.9