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Exposure to Generator Fumes in Nigeria

Indoor air pollution (IAP) is an increased public health concern over the past years. This is a result of high amount of time people spend indoors (Ismail Adefeso, Jacob Sonibare, Funso Akeredolu and AdemolaRabiu, 2012). According to World Health Organization Constitution, people are entitled to the humanrights of healthy indoor environment. They defined air quality as “thermal comfort, and visual healthand comfort” (R. Kosonen, and F. Tan, 2004). Due to insufficient funds, the Nigerian government hascancelled all power projects, there reducing the supply of electricity within the country. As a result, thedemand of generators increased.

Portable electric power generator (PPG) is a gasoline or diesel-powered device which provides
temporary supply of electric power upto a certain wattage in homes (Debbie J. Jarvis, Gary Adamkiewicz,Marie-Eve Heroux, Regula Rapp, and Frank J. Kelly). This is designed for only outdoor purposes.Generator owners often place their power generator near, or in their homes due to generator theft,noise to neighbors, and the design of the home (depending if the individual is an apartment tenant or ahouse tenant) (M. R. Ashmore, and C. Dimitroulopoulou, 2009). The exposure to generator fumes is associated with the combustion design of diesel/fuel engines.
The quality of air in homes, offices, schools and other institutions, is required to be clean because 80% of people spend, or perform their daily activities indoors. The National Health and Medical Research
Council (NHMRC) defines indoor air as air within a building occupied by people within a specific period of time (Godson Rowland Ana, Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo and Gregory Adekunle Fakunle).

The US Consumer Product Saftety Commission reported five out of 104 deaths caused by generator
carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with generator placed outside the home towards open
windows or, doors or vents (N. E. Marcy and D. S. Ascon, 1990-2004). In 2008, over 60 people suffocated
to death in Nigeria as a result of exposure to high concentration of CO.


1. Debbie J. Jarvis, Gary Adamkiewicz, Marie-Eve Heroux, Regula Rapp, and Frank J. Kelly. (n.d.).
WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Retrieved from
2. Godson Rowland Ana, Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo and Gregory Adekunle Fakunle. (n.d.).
Indoor Air Quality and Risk Factors Associated with Respiratory Conditions in Nigeria. World's
largest Science, Technology & Medicine. Retrieved from
3. Ismail Adefeso, Jacob Sonibare, Funso Akeredolu and Ademola Rabiu. (2012). Environmental
Impact of Portable Power Generator on Indoor Air Quality. International Conference on
Environment, Energy and Biotechnology. Retrieved from
4. M. R. Ashmore, and C. Dimitroulopoulou. (2009). Personal exposure of children to air pollution.
Atmospheric. 43, 128-141.
5. N. E. Marcy and D. S. Ascon. (1990-2004). Memorandum: Incidents, deaths, and in-depth
investigations associated with carbon monoxide from engine-driven generators and other
engine-driven tools. United States Consumer Product Safety Commission.
6. R. Kosonen, and F. Tan. (2004). The effect of perceived indoor air quality on productivity loss.
36, 981–986.

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