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Intimate Partner Violence


Intimate partner violence (IPV) is considered as the most common public health problem worldwide, and it is common among women and children. IPV involves physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and controlling behaviors by an intimate partner. IPV occurs in all settings and among all socioeconomic, religious and cultural groups. Although women can be violent in relationship with men, often in self-defense, the most common perpetrators of violence against women are male intimate partners or ex partners (WHO, 2012).
In the last previous decades, women and girls are significantly recognized as a human right and public health issue affecting all societies. According to WHO, there’s an estimate of at least one in three women throughout the world have experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner, or sexual violence by non-partner (Devries KM1, 2013). The impact of IPV on the health and well-being of women, and their families can be devastating, as it is a common form of violence against women worldwide (Mary Ellsberg, 2014).  
WHO surveys show that the percentage of abused women who experienced either physical or sexual violence ranged from 15% Japanese, 60% Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Peru  (Garcia-Moreno C1, 2006). Other studies indicate high rate of IPV in Latin America, example, 49% o Peruvian women experienced severe physical abuse in their lifetime, and 38% Columbian women were reported physically and sexually abused by a recent partner (Pallitto CC1, 2004).


Consequences of IPV:
IPV is broadly linked to a range of health complications such as intentional injuries, chronic disease, substance abuse, reproductive health problems, HIV/AIDS, and low birth weight (Pallitto CC1 & Violence., 2013). IPV can lead to severe mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and eating disorder. It increases the mortality rate among  (Stöckl H1, 2013).
women through suicide and homicide. Out of all murders among women worldwide, about 38% were committed by a current or former intimate partner
The physical damage resulting from IPV can include bruises and welts, lacerations and abrasions, abdominal or thoracic injuries, fractures and broken bones or teeth, sight and hearing damages, head injury, attempt of strangulation, and back and neck injury (Etienne G. Krug, 2002). In addition to physical injuries, are ailments that are cannot be identified medically, or are difficult to diagnose. These are often referred to as “functional disorders” or “stress-related conditions”, they include: irritable bowel syndrome/ gastrointestinal symptoms, fibromyalgia, various chronic pain syndromes and exacerbation of asthma (Etienne G. Krug, 2002). According to the WHO multi country study, the prevalence of injury among intimate partner abused women ranged between 19% (Ethiopia) and 55% (Peru) (Claudia García-Moreno, 2005).

Prevalence Rate:













































Conclusion: 

Poor access to education, age and non-marital cohabitation increase the risk of domestic violence among women (Ishida K1, 2010).

References

1.      Claudia García-Moreno, H. A. (2005). WHO Multi-country on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women. WHO. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/alina/Downloads/924159358X_eng.pdf
2.       Devries KM1, M. J.-M. (2013, June 28). Global health. The global prevalence of intimate partner violence against women. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23788730
3.       Etienne G. Krug, L. L. (2002). World report on Violence and Health. World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42495/1/9241545615_eng.pdf
4.       Garcia-Moreno C1, J. H. (2006, Octomber 7). Prevalence of intimate partner violence: findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17027732
5.       Ishida K1, S. P. (2010, September 15). Exploring the associations between intimate partner violence and women's mental health: evidence from a population-based study in Paraguay. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20864237
6.       Mary Ellsberg, a. M. (2014, September 12). Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health. Global Health Action. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165041/
7.       Pallitto CC1, G.-M. C., & Violence., W. M.-C. (2013, January 1). Intimate partner violence, abortion, and unintended pregnancy: results from the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22959631
8.       Pallitto CC1, O. P. (2004, December 30). The relationship between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy: analysis of a national sample from Colombia. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15590382
9.       Stöckl H1, D. K. (2013, September 7). The global prevalence of intimate partner homicide: a systematic review. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23791474
10.   WHO. (2012). Understanding and addressing violence against women. Pan American Health Organization, World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77432/1/WHO_RHR_12.36_eng.pdf




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