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Intimate Partner Violence


Intimate partner violence (IPV) is considered as the most common public health problem worldwide, and it is common among women and children. IPV involves physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and controlling behaviors by an intimate partner. IPV occurs in all settings and among all socioeconomic, religious and cultural groups. Although women can be violent in relationship with men, often in self-defense, the most common perpetrators of violence against women are male intimate partners or ex partners (WHO, 2012).
In the last previous decades, women and girls are significantly recognized as a human right and public health issue affecting all societies. According to WHO, there’s an estimate of at least one in three women throughout the world have experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner, or sexual violence by non-partner (Devries KM1, 2013). The impact of IPV on the health and well-being of women, and their families can be devastating, as it is a common form of violence against women worldwide (Mary Ellsberg, 2014).  
WHO surveys show that the percentage of abused women who experienced either physical or sexual violence ranged from 15% Japanese, 60% Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Peru  (Garcia-Moreno C1, 2006). Other studies indicate high rate of IPV in Latin America, example, 49% o Peruvian women experienced severe physical abuse in their lifetime, and 38% Columbian women were reported physically and sexually abused by a recent partner (Pallitto CC1, 2004).


Consequences of IPV:
IPV is broadly linked to a range of health complications such as intentional injuries, chronic disease, substance abuse, reproductive health problems, HIV/AIDS, and low birth weight (Pallitto CC1 & Violence., 2013). IPV can lead to severe mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and eating disorder. It increases the mortality rate among  (Stöckl H1, 2013).
women through suicide and homicide. Out of all murders among women worldwide, about 38% were committed by a current or former intimate partner
The physical damage resulting from IPV can include bruises and welts, lacerations and abrasions, abdominal or thoracic injuries, fractures and broken bones or teeth, sight and hearing damages, head injury, attempt of strangulation, and back and neck injury (Etienne G. Krug, 2002). In addition to physical injuries, are ailments that are cannot be identified medically, or are difficult to diagnose. These are often referred to as “functional disorders” or “stress-related conditions”, they include: irritable bowel syndrome/ gastrointestinal symptoms, fibromyalgia, various chronic pain syndromes and exacerbation of asthma (Etienne G. Krug, 2002). According to the WHO multi country study, the prevalence of injury among intimate partner abused women ranged between 19% (Ethiopia) and 55% (Peru) (Claudia García-Moreno, 2005).

Prevalence Rate:













































Conclusion: 

Poor access to education, age and non-marital cohabitation increase the risk of domestic violence among women (Ishida K1, 2010).

References

1.      Claudia García-Moreno, H. A. (2005). WHO Multi-country on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women. WHO. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/alina/Downloads/924159358X_eng.pdf
2.       Devries KM1, M. J.-M. (2013, June 28). Global health. The global prevalence of intimate partner violence against women. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23788730
3.       Etienne G. Krug, L. L. (2002). World report on Violence and Health. World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42495/1/9241545615_eng.pdf
4.       Garcia-Moreno C1, J. H. (2006, Octomber 7). Prevalence of intimate partner violence: findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17027732
5.       Ishida K1, S. P. (2010, September 15). Exploring the associations between intimate partner violence and women's mental health: evidence from a population-based study in Paraguay. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20864237
6.       Mary Ellsberg, a. M. (2014, September 12). Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health. Global Health Action. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165041/
7.       Pallitto CC1, G.-M. C., & Violence., W. M.-C. (2013, January 1). Intimate partner violence, abortion, and unintended pregnancy: results from the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22959631
8.       Pallitto CC1, O. P. (2004, December 30). The relationship between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy: analysis of a national sample from Colombia. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15590382
9.       Stöckl H1, D. K. (2013, September 7). The global prevalence of intimate partner homicide: a systematic review. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23791474
10.   WHO. (2012). Understanding and addressing violence against women. Pan American Health Organization, World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77432/1/WHO_RHR_12.36_eng.pdf




Unintentional Injuries Among Children

Injuries are the third leading cause of death in the European region. In-spite of their magnitude and preventability, Injuries are neglected more than other diseases (Devroey D1, 2006). In the European region, about 26,0000 children under the age of 15 died from injuries, an equivalent of 3 children/hour (WHO, 2005). In Romania, an estimate of 777 children die/year because of unintentional injuries (Alliance, 2012).
Domestic accidents are accidents that occur in homes, or in its immediate surroundings. In European countries, home accidents have more fatality than road traffic accidents. Every domestic accident inflicts different measures of distress to the victims as well as the family members, and the consequences may be disastrous on both community and individual level when resulted in permanent disability (S.Galal, 1999).  
Children being unaware of the dangers of their surroundings, they are more prone to home accidents. The leading cause of domestic accidents among childhood in homes are drowning, falls, thermal injuries and poisoning. The home is of significance when analyzing child injuries as it is an environment where children are brought up, and achieve developmental milestones by interacting with their physical surroundings. The risk factor of injuries among children within the home is a joint interaction between the caregiver, the child and the home surroundings (Laflamme, 2010).

Types of home accident injuries:
Drowning
Drowning the 2nd leading cause of death among children age 0-19 years within the European union. It is accounted for 14 deaths per day and 5000 deaths per year. In addition, for each child that dies from drowning, 2 are estimated to be permanently disabled, resulting to neurological damages in the child. Children can drown within an inch of water such as bath tubs and indoor pools.

Poisoning
Poisoning is the third leading cause of domestic injuries among children in European countries. 3000 children between 0-14 years die/year. The curiosity and desire to put everything in their mouth puts a child in high risk to the exposure of poison. Children eat or drink anything they see that is attractive, regardless the taste of the of the substance (Alliance, Poisoning Among Children, 2009).
Children are more likely to suffer serious consequences when exposed to poison because of their size, and their fast-metabolic rates. Their body is unable to neutralize toxic substances. More than 90% of poisonings occur in the homes, and many of these chemicals are cleaning supplies, pills, pesticides, medicines, cosmetics etc (Center, Harborview Injury Prevention & Research, 2001).   .  

Thermal injuries
Children are naturally curious of their surroundings as they become older and more mobile. They begin to familiarize with their surroundings, as a result, they come In contact with objects that can give them severe injuries such as burns. Thermal injuries are the most painful and devastating experience a child should go through, as it affects them on a long term (Ruth Baker, 2016). According to WHO Global Burden of Disease, in 2004, 30% of the population (310,000) who died from severe burns were under the age of 20 years. Fire related injuries are the 11th leading cause of death for children between 1 and 9 years. In total, children are at high risk for death from burns with a global estimate of 3.9 deaths/100 000 population (Margie Peden, 2008).

Fall
Data shows that falls is the most frequent type o injury resulting in hospitalization emergency. Although it is part of a child growing up, non-fatal falls is a significant burden on healthcare facilities. Falls from heights, or on concrete floors can result to severe injuries, disabilities or even death. Children are at risk as they may underestimate their physical balance or mental ability to perform activities safely. Falls are the most important source of disability because they are common, and have serious long term health consequences. Changing tables, stairs, windows, balconies, and playgrounds are risk factors of falls (Dinesh Sethi)

Magnitude of the Problem











References

1.      Alliance, E. C. (2009, 0ctomber). Poisoning Among Children. Retrieved from http://www.childsafetyeurope.org/publications/info/factsheets/childhood-poisoning.pdf
2.       Alliance, E. C. (2012). CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD. Retrieved from http://www.childsafetyeurope.org/reportcards/info/romania-report-card.pdf
3.       Center, Harborview Injury Prevention & Research. (2001). Reducing the impact of injury and violence on people’s lives through research, education, training and public awareness.
4.       Devroey D1, V. C. (2006, September 13). The incidence of home accidents is going down in Belgium. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16943166
5.       Dinesh Sethi, E. T.-G. (n.d.). European Report on Child Injurt Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/83757/E92049.pdf
6.       Laflamme, M. S. (2010, April 29). Child home injury mortality in Europe: a 16-country analysis. European Journal of Public Health. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/21/2/166/497614/Child-home-injury-mortality-in-Europe-a-16-country
7.       Margie Peden, K. O.-S. (2008). World Report on Child Injury Prevention. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/alina/Documents/2nd%20year,%202nd%20semester/VIP/World_report.pdf
8.       Ruth Baker, a. L. (2016, November 4). Differing patterns in thermal injury incidence and hospitalisations among 0–4 year old children from England. NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5062947/
9.       S.Galal. (1999). working with families to reduce the risk of home accidents in children. Retrieved from http://applications.emro.who.int/emhj/0503/EMHJ_1999_5_3_572_582.pdf


10.   WHO. (2005, May 30). Preventing children accidents and improving home safety in the European Region. WHO Europe. WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn Office . Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/98666/Bonn_accident_rep.pdf