Tuesday, January 31, 2017

NGOs Founded in Nigeria: Encouragement is the Key to Success


Encourage those who provide services for others, by making sure that what they work for remains a legacy. Help the NGOs who dedicate their time and resources to invest in needy and vulnerable people. Promote them, and show that they are being recognized for their hard work. Give them the opportunity to make  a change in the world, for we as individuals, cannot rely on the government for everything.


NEW MILLENNIUM FOUNDATION by Mr. Emeka Nwandu

New Millennium Foundation, Enugu State, Nigeria, Founded in August 13th, 1985 by Mr. Emeka Nwandu, has achieved a lot by restoring hope to the needy and giving them the faith that they deceive. With a vision of "becoming the best Non Governmental Organization in Africa aimed at changing the lives of the less privileged, orphans and vulnerable children in Africa", and goal of 
"creating  a conducive environment that upholds the rights of children to survive, develop, protect 
and ensure that they have full potentials and participation in the society". 



HOPE TO ALL AFRICANS by Mrs. Christy Chioma Ndu

In March 2013, Africa was declared the world’s poorest continent by the United Nations. The continent is struggling with malnutrition, hunger, starvation, poor infrastructure, among others.
In other to restore hope for all Africans, NGOs are established, for example, in Nigeria, where there are at least multiple NGOs, carrying the responsibility of providing for others.
Hope for all Africans, established by Mrs. Christy Chioma Ndu, was established in 2015, and incorporated in July 5th, 2016 by the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria.
The mission of the organization is to impact and empower the less privileged, orphans, patients in the hospitals, the destitute, prisoners etc. Mrs. Christy Chioma Ndu, further highlighted on the roles the organization has been playing since its inception. Hope for All Africa, has been helpful to many homes such as motherless babies’ homes located at different states in Nigeria, such as Ogun, Anambra, Lagos etc. furthermore, the organization has reached elderly homes and prisons.

Mrs. Christy Chioma Ndu, explained while she invested in NGO, had a revelation to establish an NGO, in addition, “I have passion to help the needy, the less privileged, the motherless, etc. it hurts me as I watch these people suffer and go through pains, without anyone giving them hope or succor. We go to hospitals and pray for the sick, inspire the less-privileged by giving them words of encouragement, materialistic things such as clothes, food, drinks etc.’’ Christy beckoned on Nigerians, and corporate organizations to assist in giving hope to the needy. She expressed her gratitude to her husband, Fr. John O. Ndu, for supporting her all through the way. 

Saturday, January 28, 2017

HIV/AIDS Stigma and Discrimination



Over the past 30 years, after the first clinical evidence of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome was reported, AIDS have become one of the most devastating diseases humankind has ever faced. Since the epidemic began, more than 60 million people have been infected with the virus and nearly 30 million people have died of HIV-related causes. AIDS became the sixth deadliest disease worldwide.
There has been an estimation of over 33.3 million people globally living with HIV, during the year 2009. Also, in the year 2009, there was an estimate of 1.8 million AIDS-related death and 2.6 million new HIV (United Nations Human Rights, 2016).
 As the rate of AIDS/HIV increased, stigma and discrimination have fueled the transmission of HIV and has greatly increased the negative impact associated with the epidemic. HIV-related stigma and discrimination has increased in every country and region of the world.
The stigma associated with AIDS has silenced open discussion, both of its causes and of appropriate responses. Visibility and openness about AIDS are prerequisites for the successful mobilization of government, communities and individuals to respond to the epidemic. Concealment encourages denial that there is a problem, thereby delaying urgent actions. This makes people living with HIV/AIDS to appear as a problem, rather than a solution to contain and manage the epidemic.
AIDS associated stigmatization underpins many factors, including lack of understanding of the illness, misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted, lack of access to treatment, irresponsible media reporting on the epidemic, the incurability of AIDS, and prejudice and fears relating to a number of socially sensitive issues including sexuality, disease and death and drug use
Stigma leads to discrimination and other violations of human rights which affect the well-being of people living with HIV in fundamental ways (Aggleton P; Wood K; Malcolm A; Parker R, 2005).

References

1.      Aggleton P; Wood K; Malcolm A; Parker R. (2005, April). HIV-related stigma, discrimination and human rights violations: case studies of successful programmes. [Stigmate, discrimination et violations des droits de l'homme associés au VIH : études de cas de programmes fructueux] [Estigma relacionado con el VIH,. Retrieved from http://www.popline.org/node/255550
2.       United Nations Human Rights. (2016, June). HIV/AIDS and Human Rights. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/HIV/Pages/HIVIndex.aspx


Water and its Importance

Water makes up 55-56% of the human body weight, and it consists of important physiological role in virtually every organ system in the body. Adequate intake of water is essential for the health, and it improves the performance of the body both physical and mental. Because every living cell in the human body, (blood 83%, muscles 75%, brain 74% and bones 10%), depends on water for nourishment, elimination of waste, insulation, cooling and provision of moist environment for the ear, nose and throat tissues (Andersson 2008). 
Recent studies show that most American children and teenagers do not drink enough fluids, thereby leaving them mildly dehydrated. 25% of American children ages 6-19, do not drink water as part of their daily fluid intake. 
Most of the Harvard scientists's findings prove that in schools, children consume  soda drinks, more than they consume water. According to Erica Kenney, a postdoctoral researcher, at Harvard's T.H. Chan School of Public Health,  kids are not drinking that much fluid. 



Friday, January 27, 2017

Indoor Pollution




An estimate of 3 billion people cook and heat their homes using solid fuels (such as wood, charcoal, coal, dung, crop wastes etc) on open fires or traditional stoves. Such inefficient cooking and heating practices produce high levels of household (indoor) air pollution which includes a range of health damaging pollutants such as fine particles and carbon monoxide.
In poorly ventilated dwellings, smoke in and around the home can exceed acceptable levels for fine particles 100-fold. Exposure is particularly high among women and young children, who spend the most time near domestic hearth.
According to WHO, 4.3 million people die per year from the exposure to household air pollution.
http://www.who.int/indoorair/en/

Indoor air pollution has become a major public health problem for a large number of the world's poorest, most vulnerable people. It is responsible for ta similar proportion of the global burden of diseases as a risk factor such tobacco and unsafe sex.
Indoor pollution has led to a result of childhood acute lower respiratory infections. According to WHO 2000, exposure to indoor air pollution in developing countries has increased the prevalence rate of acute lower respiratory infections, and tuberculosis.

file:///C:/Users/alina/Downloads/07_indoor_pollution.pdf





Promoting Safe Walking and Cycling to Improve Public Health

In American cities, walking and bicycling has become dangerous to get around within the cities due to the neglect of pedestrian and bicycling safety (A. H. Mokdad, B. A. Bowman, E. S. Ford, F. Vivicor, J. S. Marks, and J. P. Koplan,, 2001). 

This has worsen the epidemic of obesity. Nationwide surveys  on self reported weight and height shows an increase in obesity from 12% of adults in 1991, to 20% in 2000. The estimate of obesity on clinical measurements of weight and height are high, indicating that in the year 2000, 31% of the adult population was obese, and 64% was overweight (Flegal KM1, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL., 2002). Scientific studies show that lack in physical activity is a significant alarm towards the increase rate of obesity ( C. Dora, 1999). 

Improving conditions for walking and bicycling in American cities will be a measure in decreasing pedestrian and cycling fatalities, and injuries, grant access to people who are overweight to bike or walk for a short trip, thus obtaining a physical activities in their life. 

The following are ways in Improving Safe Walking and Cycling:
  1. Better facilities for walking and cycling 
  2. Traffic calming of residential neighborhood
  3. Urban design oriented to people not cars
  4. Restriction on motor vehicle use 
  5. Traffic education
  6. Traffic regulation and enforcement


REFERENCES


1.      C. Dora. (1999, June 19). A different route to health: implications of transport policies. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10373178
2.       A. H. Mokdad, B. A. Bowman, E. S. Ford, F. Vivicor, J. S. Marks, and J. P. Koplan,. (2001, September 12). “The Continuing Epidemics of Obesity and Diabetes in the United States. 1195-1200. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11559264
3.       Flegal KM1, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. (2002, October 9). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12365955

The prevalence of Chronic Disease

Thursday, January 26, 2017

Crash course Psychology

Interesting course on depression and bipolar disorder. Watching the video helps to understand the meaning of depressive and bipolar disorder

Abortion Rate in Nigeria

Nigeria has a low contraceptive prevalence, and a substantial number of women have had unintended pregnancies. Many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country's law. currently, there has been an estimate of1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59% /1,000 women aged 15–49. 56%  of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion.Oct 27, 2015 guttmacher institute 














Pregnancy terminations is quite because they are performed by unskilled doctors ( World Health Organization (WHO) 2008). The first national study to examine the incidence of abortion in 1996 estimated 610, 000 abortions, or 25 per 1000 women aged 15-44years occured in Nigeria (Henshaw SK, et al, 1998). 

Years later, other studies reported that the rate of abortion remained constant from the year 1996, and by 2006, the prevalence increased to 760, 000 given the rise of population in Nigeria during that period (Sedgh G, et al, 2006). 

In Nigeria, the rate of abortion varied; In 2012, there were 27 abortions per 1,000 women between the age of 15 to 49 in the South West, and North Central zones; 31 per 1, 000 in the North West, and South East zones; and 44 per 1,000 in the North East and South South zones. The proportion of pregnancies ending in induced abortion was lowest in the South West (11%), and highest in the North East (16%) and South South (17%) (Guttmacher, 2015).
Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world  (WHO et al, 1990-2013). Although the government has acknowledged the problem and is committed to improve maternal health, evidence has proven the limitations of the progress, and unsafe abortion remains a major contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. 

In 2002-2003, a survey was conducted in a community, about 25% of women who had an induced abortion reported having sever complications(Bankole A, et al. 2006). Other studies indicated that women who were admitted to hospitals for induced abortion complications had suffered a variety of complications including retained products of conception (50%), bleeding (34%), and fever (34%) ( Henshaw SK, et al, 2008). Two-thirds had more sever complications such as sepsis, pelvic infections and injury from instruments while some of the women died. 

Recent studies reported 137 maternal near-miss cases in a six-month period at eight large hospitals across the country ( Prada E, Biddlecom A, Singh S, 2011).  10% were due to unsafe abortion (Prada E, et al, 2015). Other studies estimated about 3,000 women died annually from unsafe abortion in the 1990, in Nigeria ( Henshaw SK, et al, 2008).  This estimates were based on those who died in healthcare facilities, and not those who died from unsafe abortion before reaching a facility. The death rate was likely higher. 



REFERENCES

World Health Organization (WHO) Unsafe Abortion: Global and Regional Estimates of the Incidence of Unsafe Abortion and Associated Mortality in 2008. Geneva: WHO; 2011.

Henshaw SK, et al. The incidence of induced abortion in Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1998;24(4):156–164.

Sedgh G, et al. Unwanted pregnancy and associated factors among Nigerian women. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2006;32(4):175–184. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17237014

WHO et al. Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2013. Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, The World Bank and the United Nations Population Division. Geneva: WHO; 2014.

Bankole A, et al. Unwanted Pregnancy and Induced Abortion in Nigeria: Causes and Consequences. New York: Guttmacher Institute; 2006.

 Prada E, Biddlecom A, Singh S. Induced abortion in Colombia: new estimates and change between 1989 and 2008. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2011;37(3):114–124. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21988787

Henshaw SK, et al. Severity and cost of unsafe abortion complications treated in Nigerian hospitals. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2008;34(1):40–50. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18440916

 Prada E, et al. Maternal near-miss due to unsafe abortion and associated short-term health and socioeconomic consequences in Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2015;19(2):52–62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26506658


Educational standards in Nigeria


The problems of Healthcare in Nigeria

WHO estimates over 500,000 deaths from malaria every year in Africa. Many of the issues Nigerian health system is mostly faced in the rest of Africa.
Questions: What then does the new Nigerian president Muhammadu Buhari, have to do in order to tackle the persistent problems regarding the Nigerian’s public health infrastructure?

Nigeria is ranked lower than war-ravaged countries such as Iraq and Congo, with a mortality rate of 86:1000. This can be used as an economic indicator (The Problem With Healthcare In Nigeria - Health - Nairaland, 2017), as today, Africa faces a very unique set of healthcare challenges, and in most West African countries, the following are the disease that are accounted for, for the numerous deaths in Nigeria, plague, cholera and measles. Introducing antibiotics, immunizations and good quality primary healthcare can assist in decreasing the rate of these diseases.

Health problems that many Western Countries face are associated with chronic diseases such as cardio vascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic diseases. On the other hand, in the whole of Africa, infectious diseases remain a significant problem, and Nigeria is of no exception. In addition, the economic development of parts of the world, mostly in African countries, including Nigeria, contributes to an onslaught of non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This adds as a threat, and therefore actions must be taken to address this.
Many Western countries have made a fundamental error in addressing the healthcare problems in Africa, and Nigeria is of no exception. They focus on providing treatment for illnesses instead of health maintenance, and indeed, it leads to unnecessary arguments on “sick-care system”, rather than “health care system”.  For example, the United States spends an estimated amount of $trillion annually on health care, and yet, America fails to achieve the best healthcare outcomes in the world. Furthermore, the United States spends hundreds of billions of dollars annually to treat preventable illness and diseases.

People fail to realize that Increase in healthcare spending does not produce better healthcare outcomes, and that a great and unnecessary proportion of healthcare funding is spent treating preventable diseases and illnesses.
A study conducted by Harvard University revealed that a preventable mobile health program returned $36 in savings on healthcare cost for every $1 spent on prevention. Creating a culture of health as opposed to focus on illness requires a commitment to prevention. Nigeria needs to focus on preventing diseases and injuries as it is the most effective and common-sense way to improve health.
The Nigerian healthcare problems are diversified, thereby increasing the approaches and theories on improving millions of Nigerians current access to basic healthcare. Decreasing the healthcare cost, and providing universal healthcare coverage in Nigeria will be a significant factor for improving its healthcare system (Orekunrin, 2015).

REFERENCES

1.      Orekunrin, D. O. (2015, July 11). Nigeria’s Healthcare Problems: A Three Pronged Solution. Political Matter. Retrieved from https://politicalmatter.org/2015/07/11/10769/
2.       The Problem With Healthcare In Nigeria - Health - Nairaland. (2017, January 26). Nairaland Forum. Retrieved from http://www.nairaland.com/838022/problem-healthcare-nigeria


Wednesday, January 25, 2017

Obesity vs Malnutrition


Over 17.3 million children worldwide suffer from severe acute malnutrition, also known as severe Wasting. This occurs when a child is undernourished, and they at the risk of dying. Most severely malnourished children live in Asia and Africa. 
Nigeria has the highest rate of malnourished children in the world at around 1.9 million children each year. 
As recently as ten years ago, treatment for severe undernourishment have been carried out in hospital. In Nigeria, an innovative community-based approach led by the government is reaching large numbers of children far more than a limited number of hospital beds would ever allow (Children Investment Fund Foundation, 2015). 

REFERENCES


Children Investment Fund Foundation. (2015). Saving children's lives with care and fortifi
peanut paste. Retrieved from https://ciff.org/impact/one-million-malnourished-children-treated-
nigeria/


The burden of Diabetes

Diabetes: 

The rate of diabetes is globally increasing, and Sub-Saharan Africa is of no exception. With diverse health challenges, authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa and international donors need robust data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in order to plan, and prioritize the health programs.

The prevalence of Diabtes: 

Type 2 diabetes accounts for well over 90% of diabetic patients  in Sub-Saharan Africa, and population prevalence proportions ranges from 1% in rural Uganda to 12% in urban Kenya. Type 1 diabetes prevalence is low and ranges from 4 per 100,000 in Mozambique to 12 per 100,000 in Zambia. Gestational diabetes prevalence varies from 0% in Tanzania to 9% in Ethiopia. Proportions of patients with diabetic complications ranges  from 7-63% for retinopathy, 27-66% for neuropathy, and 10-83% for microalbuminuria. 
Diabetic patients are likely to be predisposed to an increased risk of several important infections in the region, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and sepsis. Meanwhile, antiviral treatment for HIV increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance. Scientific studies show that there is a  five-years mortality proportions of patients with diabetes varying from 4-57%. . Other significant studies show  high proportions (> 40%) with previously undiagnosed diabetes, and low levels of adequate glucose control among previously diagnosed diabetics. Barriers to accessing diagnosis and treatment included a lack of diagnostic tools and glucose monitoring equipment and high cost of diabetes treatment. The total annual cost of diabetes in the region was estimated at US$67.03 billion, or US$8836 per diabetic patient. 

In conclusion, Diabetes exerts a significant burden in the region, and this is expected to increase. Many diabetic patients face significant challenges accessing diagnosis and treatment, which contributes to the high mortality and prevalence of complications observed. The significant interactions between diabetes and important infectious diseases highlight the need and opportunity for health planners to develop integrated responses to communicable and non-communicable diseases (Nicolai Lohse, 2011)

REFERENCES

Nicolai Lohse. (2011, July 14). Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999-2011: Epidemiology and public 
health implications. a systematic review. BMC Public Health. Retrieved from 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3156766/





HIV Discrimination


Understanding eating disorders


Symptoms of Panic Attacks
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Pounding heart or chest pain
  • Intense feeling of dread
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sensation of choking or smothering
  • Dizziness or feeling faint
  • Trembling or shaking
  • Sweating
  • Nausea or stomachache
  • Tingling or numbness in the fingers and toes
  • Chills or hot flashes
  • A fear that you are losing control or are about to die

What Causes Panic Disorder?



Although the exact cause of panic disorder is not fully understood, studies have shown that a combination of factors, including biological and environmental, may be involved. These factors include.
  • Family history. Panic disorder has been shown to sometimes run in families. It may sometimes be passed on to people by one or both parents much like the risk for other complex diseases such as cancer or heart disease.
  • Abnormalities in the brain. Panic disorder may be caused by problems in regulating brain areas that control the "fight or flight" response.
  • Substance abuse. Abuse of drugs and alcohol can contribute to panic disorder.
  • Major life stress. Stressful events and major life transitions, such as the death of a loved one, can sometimes trigger panic attacks, which can potentially recur and go on to become panic disorder.

The continuation of the Nigerian Health care system


Why the health system in going wrong


History of Health System in Nigeria


Health Promotion

Health promotion is drawn from biological, environmental, psychological, physical and medical sciences to promote health and prevent diseases, disability and premature death through education-driven voluntary behavior change activities.
Health promotion aims at influencing health behavior of an individual and communities as well as improving living and working conditions. 
Health promotion is important because it improves the health status of individuals, families, communities, states and the nation. It is a behavioral social science that focuses on enhancing the quality of life of people. It decreases the rate of premature deaths through prevention, health promotion reduces the costs (financial and human) that are spent on medical treatments. 

Health Literacy

         Health Literacy and its Importance:

Health literacy helps us to understand and use information and services. Maintaining our health is a part of our daily activities, not just visiting a doctor, clinic or hospital. Health literacy is a help key in preventing and controlling of health problems, as well as a better management to those problems and unexpected situations that may occur.  Educated people can as well face health literacy when:


 They are not familiar with medical terms or how the functions of their bodies

They have to interpret statistics and evaluate risks and benefits that may affect their health and safety

They are diagnosed with severe illness and are scared and confused



They have health conditions that require complicated self-care

They are voting on an issue affecting the community’s health and relying on unfamiliar technical information (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016)

 Importance of Health Literacy:

 Health literacy is essential for successful access to care and use of services, self-care of chronic conditions, and maintenance of health and wellness.

Health literacy is fundamental to healthcare that requires individuals to have a more active role in decisions and management.

The IOM reports that 90 million people, nearly half our adult population, lack health literacy skills needed to understand and act on health information and health system demands
Only 12% of U.S. adults have the health literacy proficiency to perform complex health tasks such as using a table to calculate an employee’s share of health insurance costs ( Parker, RM and Jacobson, K, 2012).


REFERENCES

1.      Parker, RM and Jacobson, K. (2012). The degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health. Health Literacy. Retrieved from https://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/~/media/Files/Activity%20Files/PublicHealth/HealthLiteracy/HealthLiteracyFactSheets_Feb6_2012_Parker_JacobsonFinal1.pdf
2.       Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016, July 26). Health Literacy. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthliteracy/learn/understanding.htm

Help in waste management

Waste management has become more and more a significant health related issue worldwide. The waste produced by humans are almost reaching a breaking point for what the environment can handle (Alexandra Maria Almasi, and Almut Reichel, 2013)

There is an increase in the need for natural resources to discover new possibilities of alternative, and renewable resources. The situation of waste management trend is to create an integrate system based on prevention of waste creation, and minimizing the amount of the generated waste on recycling and reusing the waste materials, as well as using technological treatment (L.M. SCORTAR, L.E. SUCIU*, M. SANDOR, 2014).

  

The health of individuals and communities are affected by many factors. The health of people can be determined by their circumstances or environment. Where we live, the state of our environment, genetics, our income and education level, and our relationships among friends and family, to an extent, have impact on our health. Whereas, the most considered factor such as access and use of health care services, have less of an impact.
The context of people’s lives determine their health, and so blaming individuals for having poor health or crediting them for good health is inappropriate. Individuals are unlikely to be able to directly control many of the determinants of health. These determinants, or things that make people healthy or not, include the above factors, and many others.
{WHO; determinants of health, 2016}